By Jonathan Gantt (auth.)
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Additional resources for Irish Terrorism in the Atlantic Community, 1865–1922
Since the end of the 18th century, and the expansion of classical republicanism and civic humanism through Europe intellectual circles, the Irish people, building upon an earlier awareness of their own unique ethnic identity, exhibited modern nationalist tendencies based on popular sovereignty and rejection of foreign (English) interference in Irish affairs. Irish nationalism converged in the mid-19th century from many currents, including Catholic identity, Enlightenment rationalism, cultural romanticism, historical sentimentalism, and “celebration of uncompromising struggle,” which found release through mass-movements, grassroots political activism, and cultural and literary expressions.
IRA operations in the Atlantic community from 1919 through early 1922, which included a ruthless guerrilla terrorist campaign that included hundreds of incidents annually, allowed Americans another opportunity to continue their protracted discussion about the origins, causes, and challenges terrorism created for imperial powers, just as the United States was embarking on its own imperial enterprises and acquiring extra-continental holdings. Several prejudices contributed to the harsh American reaction to Irish nationalist activities.
28 Early Fenian literature reinforced the goal of achieving Irish independence through legitimate, honorable methods of war, strategies designed to unify the Irish people. ” George Francis Train, an Irish-American shipping magnate, social reformer, and supposedly 34 Irish Terrorism in the Atlantic Community, 1865–1922 the inspiration for Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days, emphasized the noble, chivalric qualities of the Irish. ” In an impassioned address at his 21 June 1867 sentencing for treasonous activities, the Irish-American Stephen Joseph Meany, a senator in the O’Mahony wing of the FB and later active in the Clan-na-Gael and the American Land League, categorically repudiated efforts by Crown prosecutors to equate Fenianism with the terrorism of Robespierre.
Irish Terrorism in the Atlantic Community, 1865–1922 by Jonathan Gantt (auth.)