By Marc Flandreau, Carl-Ludwig Holtfrerich, Harold James
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Extra info for International Financial History in the Twentieth Century: System and Anarchy
This view was quite pervasive at the time: The nature of government spending was a frequent theme of the annual reports of the Council of Foreign Bondholders (from 1873). 77 The last direction was to require that the new accounts be tabulated along with background information regarding the country under study: imports, exports, exchange rates, interest rates, and population. Space was saved for comments; this could be used to mention specific events with fiscal relevance. Germain asked that three studies be made right away according to the new principles.
73 Henri Germain, La situation financi`ere de la France en 1886 (Paris, 1886). 74 Historique DEEF. The idea of ascertaining “scientifically” the economic situtation of economic entities was emerging at the time. E. Cheysson, “La statistique geom ou methode pour la ´ etrique ´ ´ solution des probl`emes commerciaux et industriels,” in Oeuvres Choisies (Paris, 1887/1991), vol. 1. 75 Henri Germain, 1891, note “Finances portugaises,” Historique DEEF. 38 Marc Flandreau propensity to turn to short-term debt in case of fiscal needs.
166 (1901): 1–51. 5 On these “debt games,” see V. Aggarwal, Debt Games (Cambridge, 1996). Charles Lipson provides an overview of the interactions between debt crises and international politics before World War I (Charles Lipson, “International and National Debt: Comparing Victorian Britain and Postwar America,” in Barry Eichengreen and P. , 1989)). , 1930). Sovereign Risk Under the International Gold Standard 19 did not result in complete recovery of lost funds. Banks thus had to watch their steps: In France, an early Credit ´ agricole went under in 1876 as a result of the Ottoman default.
International Financial History in the Twentieth Century: System and Anarchy by Marc Flandreau, Carl-Ludwig Holtfrerich, Harold James