By Orlando J. Miller
The fourth version of this recognized textual content presents scholars, researchers and technicians within the sector of medication, genetics and telephone biology with a concise, comprehensible advent to the constitution and behaviour of human chromosomes. This new version maintains to hide either uncomplicated and updated fabric on general and faulty chromosomes, but is especially reinforced by means of the entire revision of the cloth at the molecular genetics of chromosomes and chromosomal defects. The mapping and molecular research of chromosomes is without doubt one of the most enjoyable and lively components of contemporary biomedical study, and this ebook can be worthwhile to scientists, scholars, technicians and physicians with an curiosity within the functionality and disorder of chromosomes.
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Additional info for Human Chromosomes
To avoid ambiguity, we shall use centromere to refer to the chromatin core (DNA plus histones) at the primary constriction and kinetochore to refer to the complex proteinaceous structure at the centromere that mediates attachment of spindle microtubules and chromosome movement in metaphase and anaphase. Choo (1997) and Lee et al. (1997) have reviewed the kinds of DNA sequences found at human centromeres, which contain large amounts of simple-sequence DNA, just like other constitutive heterochromatin.
Histones H2A and H2B are then added, with histone HI and the nonhistone proteins following . Histones can be acetylated or phosphorylated. This maintains the tissue -specific chromatin structure (and thus the state of differentiation) unchanged throughout successive mitotic divisions, except during the differentiation process itself. DNA methylation and chromosomal protein acetylation and phosphorylation are called epigenetic processes because they can be maintained through a series of mitotic divisions but do not involve an alteration of the basic nucleotide sequence.
1999). At the G2/M tran sition (prophase), the duplicated centrosomes separate and go to opposite poles of the nucleus . A kinesin -related motor protein, Eg5, is essential for this process, as microinjection of antibodies to Eg5 arrests cells in mitosis with a monopolar spindle. , 1995). The separated centrosomes reorganize the microtubules of the cell by the coordinated dissolution of all the cytoplasmic microtubular appa ratus and assembly of the mitotic spindle, with one centrosome at each pole.
Human Chromosomes by Orlando J. Miller