By Peter Dauvergne
Environmentalism includes hundreds of thousands of overseas environmental teams, hundreds of thousands of nationwide teams, and tens of millions of neighborhood ones. it's also hundreds of thousands of overseas agreements, countless numbers of nationwide environmental companies, and numerous environmental sections in different organizations—from these in multinational firms to ones in nearby and overseas corporations. Such environmental ideas as sustainable improvement, the precautionary precept, company social accountability, and eco-labeling percolate from all of those resources. each year, new rules, refinements, regulations, associations, markets, and difficulties proceed to go into into environmental debates and discourses, making it approximately most unlikely to maintain abreast of the alterations consistently happening.
With this consistent transferring panorama in brain, the Historical Dictionary of Environmentalism strategically skips throughout matters, techniques, time, firms, and cultures, now not with any pretense of manufacturing a definitive dictionary yet fairly with the purpose of manufacturing an inclusive, wide-ranging, and worldwide historical past of environmentalism. This target is finished via a chronology, a listing of acronyms and abbreviations, an introductory essay, and over three hundred cross-referenced dictionary entries.
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Additional info for Historical Dictionary of Environmentalism (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series)
Other environmental problems, such as deforestation, are also leaving the atmosphere with higher concentrations of carbon dioxide. A primary scientific source for understanding climate change is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). So far, it has published four comprehensive assessment reports (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2007), contributing to a growing consensus that climate change is real, with the potential for great harm.
Since the 1960s the Brazilian government—with many setbacks along the way—has been expanding its capacity to manage the environment. In 1962 it created a Fisheries Ministry; in 1965, it put BRAZIL • 19 in place a new forestry code, followed in 1967 by the Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal (IBDF, or Brazilian Institute of Forestry Development). Efforts have continued as well into the 1970s and 1980s. For example, in 1973 the government set up a special secretariat for the environment under the jurisdiction of the Minister of the Interior (Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente, or SEMA).
Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland (in a 1974 article in the journal Nature) put forth the startling theory that CFCs, with millions of tons now in use, might be leaking from consumer products and drifting into the stratosphere, then splitting apart and triggering a chain reaction that was destroying the ozone layer. This theory, which won Molina and Rowland the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, changed global environmental relations, leading eventually to a series of international agreements to phase out the production and consumption of CFCs (most notably, the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer).
Historical Dictionary of Environmentalism (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series) by Peter Dauvergne