By J. E. Webb, J. A. Wallwork, J. H. Elgood (auth.)
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Extra resources for Guide to Living Birds
This condition may lead to the males being polygamous, with social courtship at 1 leks 1 • The young are always precocial, quickly drying their down feathers after hatching and leaving the nest to forage for their own food, so that parental care is minimal. 32 P A R T I G R 0 U N D B I R D S Ground birds thus spend most of their lives on or close to the ground. They show enough primitive features to warrant their being used as a starting point for the treatment of the birds, but it must not be supposed that avian evolution necessarily began from an ancestor of this type.
For amen triosseum wing lowered [/l 0 )<) H t:D 1:>1 ::c 1-3 T H E B I R D S e xt e rna l caro ti d I II ---- ..... --- ..... interna l c a rotid ---- ..... ,_- - - ..... III 1--------+ c ommo n ca r otid base of l eft a r ch a r ter y IV ve ntr i cle au r i c l e vei n '-,_~----~- pu lmona r y ,·e na e c a va e -----do r sal aor ta diagram of the heart and aortic arches of a bird 29 T H E B I R DS diagra m of t h e syrinx humerus airsac cervical bronchus anterior thoracic airsac posterior thoracic airsac diagram of the lungs and airsacs of a bird 30 THE BIRDS dorsa l view • blastodisc shell membran e air space shell membrane 2 albumen d iagram of the dVian egg lateral vie•• amnion embryo chorion air space porous shell membrane diagram of the developing egg to show the relationships of the extraembryonic membranes 31 Part I Ground Birds The ecological grouping of ground-living birds comprises the ratites, their poorly flying relatives, the tinamous, and two carinate orders, the Galliformes or game birds and the Gruiformes.
Species of moas, belonging to two families, Some 25 are known, and are usually placed in the Order Dinornithiformes, though some authorities merge them with the kiwis in the Apterygiformes. The 9 known species of elephant birds comprise the Order Aepyornithiformes. All ratites, except for the ostrich which extends just north of the equator and until recently occurred also from Arabia to Syria, are restricted to the southern hemisphere. Apart from the chicken-sized kiwis, ratites are ~eavily built ground birds with massive hind limbs for fast sustained running.
Guide to Living Birds by J. E. Webb, J. A. Wallwork, J. H. Elgood (auth.)