By Professor emeritus Har Darshan Kumar, Professor Dr. Donat-P. Häder (auth.)
This publication supplies an total photograph of the final country of the world's aquatic assets - rivers, lakes, wetlands and oceans - and of the atmospheric alterations occurring within the troposphere and the stratosphere. either ozone depletion within the stratosphere, resulting in a better occurrence of the dangerous ultraviolet-B radiation at the Earth's floor, and the hostile influence of accelerating ground-level ozone are defined within the mild of modern learn. The summarized medical findings and perspectives support to spot and enforce sound preventive, corrective and remedial measures to deal with modern environmental problems.
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Additional resources for Global Aquatic and Atmospheric Environment
In 1970, one third of the population in urban areas of the developing countries did not have access to safe clean water and 29% did not have access to sanitation services. At the same time, in those countries 86% of the population in rural areas did not have access to clean water and 89% did not have access to sanitation services (see Figs. 13). Aquifers near infiltration zones of polluted rivers or in the proximity of plumes of leached substances from landfills often change from aerobic to denitrifying, sulfatereducing, and eventually methanogenic conditions.
The algal growth rates and yields in a lake are controlled usually by those constituents which are present in low or limiting concentrations; these are commonly phosphate and nitrogen compounds, and rarely silicate and iron. 7). 7. Chemical constituents (rough averages) of freshwater. (Based on the data of several authors) Minor elements/ions, trace eleMajor elements (mol%)' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ments and organic compounds Anions Cations Ca2+ - 35 Mg2+ - 33 Na+-25 K+ -7 HCO/-80 SO/-IO cr -10 Gases N~+ N0 3', inorganic and organic phosphorus, Si02 HSi0 3' Fe, Co, Mo, Mn, B, Zn, vitamins, humic substances, metabolites aThese figures include the data from Lake Tanganyika which is one of the largest freshwater lakes of the world, but is quite different from many smaller lakes.
Island shallow well :-: :"':fresh - . : . '::-' " ~::-.. •;::'. - / . :.. :,: ••• :...... - saltwater intrusion _.. - .. _.. _.. _ .. _.. _. Fig. 25. Groundwater overexploitation occurs when the long-term average extraction rate exceeds the long-term average recharge rate Fig. 26. Salt water intrusion into groundwater. In coastal aquifers, fresh groundwater is elegantly balanced on top of denser saline groundwater. 44 1 Aquatic Ecosystems The following problems can then arise: 1. 2.
Global Aquatic and Atmospheric Environment by Professor emeritus Har Darshan Kumar, Professor Dr. Donat-P. Häder (auth.)