By Douglas Benn, David J. A. Evans
Glaciers and Glaciation is the vintage textbook for all scholars of glaciation. Stimulating and available, it has demonstrated a name as a accomplished and crucial resource.
In this new version, the textual content, references and illustrations were completely up-to-date to offer today's reader an up-to-the minute evaluate of the character, starting place and behavior of glaciers and the geological and geomorphological proof for his or her prior background on earth.
The first a part of the ebook investigates the strategies eager about forming glacier ice, the character of glacier-climate relationships, the mechanisms of glacier circulate and the interactions of glaciers with different ordinary platforms resembling rivers, lakes and oceans.
In the second one half, the emphasis strikes to landforms and sediment, the translation of the earth's glacial legacy and the reconstruction of glacial depositional environments and palaeoglaciology.
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Extra resources for Glaciers and Glaciation (2nd Edition)
1 INTRODUCTION G laciers and ice sheets are large, dynamic stores of water, constantly exchanging mass and energy with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and other parts of the earth system. Glaciers gain mass by the input of snow and other forms of ice accumulating on their surfaces, and undergo mass loss (ablation) by melting, iceberg calving and other processes. The total glacier mass evolves through time depending on the balance between accumulation and ablation, which in turn depend on climate and local topographic factors.
20 Deep-sea oxygen isotope record from core ODP-607 from the equatorial Atlantic. Selected marine isotope stages are labelled. Note the increased importance of the ϳ100,000-year cycle in the later part of the record. (Bradley, 1999, fig. 16) (Maslin and Ridgwell, 2005). Under this interpretation, eccentricity serves to pace the system by modulating precession forcings, rather than being the primary driver. As noted above, the Late Cenozoic glaciation began earliest in Antarctica (fig. 21). g. , 2005).
For example, for a debris surface temperature of 20 ЊC (293 K), outgoing longwave flux equals 413 W mϪ2. 3 Warm rock surfaces emit longwave radiation, adding to the energy available for melting adjacent snow and ice. I. Benn) longwave flux, depending on the temperature of the glacier surface, the atmosphere and adjacent terrain. Net longwave radiation at the glacier surface can therefore be either positive or negative, but it is usually negative when ice is melting (and hence relatively warm). Longwave radiation receipts tend to be high at the margins of valley glaciers overlooked by rockwalls, where radiation emitted from warm rock surfaces can accelerate ablation (fig.
Glaciers and Glaciation (2nd Edition) by Douglas Benn, David J. A. Evans