By Keith R. Solomon, Theo C.M. Brock, Dick De Zwart, Scott D. Dyer, Leo Posthuma, Sean Richards, Hans Sanderson, Paul Sibley, Paul J. van den Brink
A wide-ranging compilation of thoughts, Extrapolation perform for Ecotoxicological impression Characterization of chemical substances describes equipment of extrapolation within the framework of ecological threat evaluation. The e-book, informally referred to as anticipate, identifies info wishes and occasions the place those extrapolations should be so much usefully utilized, making it a pragmatic advisor to the applying of extrapolation approaches. It makes a speciality of the extrapolation of chemical results and covers the extrapolation of exposures within the context of interactions among toxicants and the matrix.
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A wide-ranging compilation of concepts, Extrapolation perform for Ecotoxicological impact Characterization of chemical substances describes tools of extrapolation within the framework of ecological probability overview. The publication, informally referred to as count on, identifies information wishes and occasions the place those extrapolations may be such a lot usefully utilized, making it a realistic consultant to the applying of extrapolation approaches.
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Extra resources for Extrapolation Practice for Ecotoxicological Effect Characterization of Chemicals
Thus, extrapolations inherent in a simple hazard quotient (HQ) may be extended and refined though the use of probabilistic methods and further verified or calibrated by other tests such as field observations, micro- and mesocosm (cosm) studies, or whole-effluent testing. 2 Terminology of Extrapolation Extrapolations always have been a key component of criteria setting and risk assessment, either formally or informally. Basically, extrapolation occurs when data derived in one system or one condition are used to predict effects or responses in another.
Uncertainty factors have been commonly used in ERA and criteria setting, and their use in extrapolation takes many forms. indd 5 4/23/08 10:53:23 AM Extrapolation Practice deterministic calculation of hazard quotients (HQ). Here, the environmental exposure concentration is divided by the concentration that causes a response in a test organism (effect concentration) to give a hazard ratio or an HQ. If the effect concentration is equal to the exposure concentration, the response in the test organisms also would be expected to be observed in the environment where the sample came from.
The simplest involve the use of generic methods derived from best judgment or traditional experience. Others are based on statistical analysis of data derived from empirical observations in the laboratory and field or on a mechanistic understanding of mechanisms of action. Historically, the earliest and still most common form of extrapolation is the use of mathematical factors in postulating effects in untested situations. Most extrapolations were made in the absence of adequate data, and in order to account for unquantified uncertainty and/or the social value associated with the affected organisms, a factor was commonly used to add a level of protection or conservatism to the extrapolation.
Extrapolation Practice for Ecotoxicological Effect Characterization of Chemicals by Keith R. Solomon, Theo C.M. Brock, Dick De Zwart, Scott D. Dyer, Leo Posthuma, Sean Richards, Hans Sanderson, Paul Sibley, Paul J. van den Brink