By Oivind Andersson
Chapter 1 You, the Discoverer (pages 1–10):
Chapter 2 what's technology? (pages 11–31):
Chapter three Science's youth (pages 33–51):
Chapter four technology vulnerable to test (pages 53–64):
Chapter five Scientists, Engineers and different Poets (pages 65–80):
Chapter 6 scan! (pages 81–112):
Chapter 7 simple facts (pages 113–138):
Chapter eight information for Experiments (pages 139–173):
Chapter nine Experimental layout (pages 175–209):
Chapter 10 part I: making plans (pages 211–233):
Chapter eleven part II: information assortment (pages 235–252):
Chapter 12 part III: research and Synthesis (pages 253–267):
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Additional info for Experiment!: Planning, Implementing and Interpreting
Similar examples are not uncommon in science. One of Hacking’s examples is David Brewster, who experimentally determined the laws of reﬂection and refraction of polarized light, and also managed to induce birefringence (polarizing properties) in materials under stress. These things were later theoretically explained within Fresnel’s P1: OTA/XYZ P2: ABC JWST195-c02 JWST195-Andersson Perception is Personal May 22, 2012 6:53 Printer: Yet to come Trim: 246mm × 189mm 27 wave theory but Brewster himself was advocating the Newtonian view that light consisted of rays of corpuscles.
Hypotheses that do not survive the tests are discarded. The others may become established theories with time. Neither these theories can be proved logically, but they have explanatory power. A disadvantage of this method is that it seems counter-intuitive to many scientists, who tend to think of the progress of science as governed by conﬁrmation of theories, rather than falsiﬁcation of them. Observation and experimentation have more central roles in practical science than in the inductive and hypothetico-deductive approaches, and may even exist independently of theories.
What do you do when you discover that there are two gods who claim to be the ruler of heaven? The Babylonian god Marduk played this role in Mesopotamia, just as Zeus did in Greece. Their differences suggested that they were not the same god with different names. Was one of them just a ﬁgment of the human imagination? But if one was, why not both?  Thales counts as the ﬁrst scientist. That is not just because he acted like an absentminded scientist: they say that he tripped and fell into a well one evening when he was walking and gazing at the stars.
Experiment!: Planning, Implementing and Interpreting by Oivind Andersson
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