Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology by Valerie C. Scanlon PDF

By Valerie C. Scanlon

ISBN-10: 0803615469

ISBN-13: 9780803615465

ISBN-10: 1429456353

ISBN-13: 9781429456357

Depend upon this bestselling textbook and its accompanying workbook to supply classroom-ready studying for all nursing and allied healthiness scholars.

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Some Basic Chemistry 25 atoms. In this way, the atom becomes stable, because its outermost shell of electrons has been filled. It is these reactive atoms that are of interest in our study of anatomy and physiology. Second energy level First energy level Proton [+] Neutron Nucleus Electrons [--] Figure 2–1. An atom of carbon. The nucleus contains six protons and six neutrons (not all are visible here). Six electrons orbit the nucleus, two in the first energy level and four in the second energy level.

1–3). Terminology and General Plan of the Body 1. Body parts and areas—see Table 1–2 and Fig. 1–4. 19 2. Terms of location and position—used to describe relationships of position (see Table 1–3 and Figs. 1–4 and 1–5). 3. Body cavities and their membranes (see Fig. 1–5). • Dorsal cavity—lined with membranes called meninges; consists of the cranial and vertebral cavities. • Cranial cavity contains the brain. • Vertebral cavity contains the spinal cord. • Ventral cavity—the diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities; the pelvic cavity is inferior to the abdominal cavity.

This prevents a drastic change in the pH of the extracellular fluid. If a strong base, such as sodium hydroxide, is added to the extracellular fluid, this reaction will occur: NaOH ϩ H2CO3 → H2O ϩ NaHCO3 Sodium hydroxide, a strong base that would greatly raise pH, has reacted with carbonic acid. The products of this reaction are water, which has no effect on pH, and sodium bicarbonate, a weak base that raises pH only slightly. Again, this prevents a drastic change in the pH of the extracellular fluid.

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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology by Valerie C. Scanlon


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