By Wen-Jun Zhang
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Additional info for Ecological Modeling
Diffuse (or Lambertian) reflectors are rough surfaces that reflect uniformly in all directions. The satellite sensor records a digital number (DN) for each pixel and spectral band. However, for the majority of practical applications in remote sensing, the DN values must be converted in measurements of the amount of energy reaching the sensor in each band, using an appropriate sensor calibration equation. This energy is expressed by the radiance (L). Radiance (L) is considered to be the measure of the radiant flux per unit of solid angle leaving an extended area source in a given direction per unit projected source area in that direction, and is measured in Wm-2sr-1.
Remote Sensing of Environment, 25, 53-69. Multispectral Vegetation Indices in Remote Sensing 35 Clevers, J. G. P. W. 1989. The application of a weighted infrared-red vegetation index for estimating leaf area index by correcting for soil moisture. Remote Sensing of Environment, 29, 25-37. Colwell, J. E. 1974. Vegetation canopy reflectance. Remote Sensing of Environment, 3, 175183. , Dungan, J. L. and Gholz, H. L. 1992. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with Landsat TM. Remote Sensing of Environment, 39, 3-13.
Christensen and Gourdiaan (1993) also used the simple ratio to calculate the cumulative PAR and the result was found to be closely related with the above-ground biomass. The NDVI was also used in many cases for the estimation of PAR. Asrar et. al. (1985b) found a strong correlation between the index and PAR, which was then used to calculate above-ground phytomass of wheat. Steinmetz et. al. (1990) also found a good relationship between NDVI and PAR, but highlighted the fact that the relationship is affected by nitrogen and water stress and also that the rate of conversion from PAR to biomass was dependent on growth stage of wheat.
Ecological Modeling by Wen-Jun Zhang
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