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The technological know-how at the back of the Earth, power, and setting Headlines.
Each month, EARTH journal brings the most recent information and data concerning the technological know-how of the Earth, power, and the surroundings in a colourful and approachable structure excellent for all. All EARTH tales come instantly from the particular released technological know-how and tells the true tale at the back of the headlines

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Extra resources for Earth (December 2013)

Example text

In particular, DEMs have been used to constrain thermo-mechanical models and test the reliability of the ice motion they predict. This latter application resulted from using the DEM directly in a simple finite-difference model, which traced and integrated the ice flux down a flow line to produce, with the benefit of surface accumulation data, an independent, global estimate of the velocity field. Ice sheet scale DEMs have also been used as the key input dataset for modelling the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet, which is crucial for accurately determining its net mass balance and hence its contribution to sea level rise.

This assumes that longitudinal stresses in the ice are averaged out and that, consequently, can be ignored over a distance of 10–20 times the ice thickness. Models that use this approximation are often termed zeroth-order models. Increasing the model resolution to a value below this scale-length may require the incorporation of vertically-averaged longitudinal stresses (a first-order model) or a full solution to the stress field (second- or higher-order models), all of which greatly increases the run-time and complexity of the model.

Cazenave (eds), Satellite Altimetry and the Earth Sciences (New York: Academic Press), 351–370. V. , 1990, Satellite Radar Altimetry over Ice, Volume 1 – Processing and Corrections of Seasat Data over Greenland, NASA Reference Publication 1: 1233. J. C. Chang, James L. Foster and Dorothy K. 1 Introduction Snow cover is an important hydrological parameter in the global water cycle. By influencing directly the dynamics of the global water cycle, snow cover has an important control on climate through its effect on energy budgets at the surface and lower atmospheric levels (Cohen, 1994).

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Earth (December 2013)

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