Dynamical Systems: Problems and Solutions - download pdf or read online

By Jürgen Jost

ISBN-10: 3540229086

ISBN-13: 9783540229087

This e-book offers a survey of the sphere of dynamical platforms and its value for examine in advanced structures and different fields, in keeping with a cautious research of particular very important examples. It additionally explains the basic underlying mathematical techniques, with a specific concentrate on invariants of dynamical structures, together with a scientific remedy of Morse-Conley conception. Entropy and similar options within the topological, metric, degree theoretic and gentle settings and a few connections with details conception are mentioned, and mobile automata and random Boolean networks are awarded as particular examples.

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Extra resources for Dynamical Systems: Problems and Solutions

Sample text

The quantity λ(x) is undefined when the orbit contains a point with |F (x(ν))| = 0, and one needs some regularization procedure. To a fixed point, one assigns the Lyapunov exponent −∞. A negative Lyapunov exponent indicates that the directions along an orbit are asymptotically contracted, while a positive one means that they are asymptotically expanded. (The numerical computation of Lyapunov exponents has to be conducted with care. In cases where the orbit is expanding one might worry about instabilities because then small errors might accumulate.

G. [24]. We consider the 2-dimensional torus T := S 1 × S 1 , that is, the product of two circles and represent it as R2 /Z2 , that is, as the unit square Q := {(x1 , x2 ) ∈ R2 : 0 ≤ x1 , x2 ≤ 1} with opposite sides identified: (x1 , 0) ∼ (x1 , 1), (0, x2 ) ∼ (1, x2 ). 33) F t (x1 , x2 ) := (x1 + ω1 t, x2 + ω2 t) (mod 1). 2 In the square Q, the flow lines are straight lines with slope σ = ω ω1 (reappearing at the opposite side with the same coordinate value when they 2 hit one of the sides of Q).

The closed orbits, however, are not attractors in either sense, because they do not attract any open neighborhood. They are invariant, of course, but not isolated. In order to analyze the case where σ is irrational, we consider the intersections of the flow lines with the vertical boundary I := {x1 = 0} (this can be identified with the second S 1 factor). 6. The x2 coordinate changes by the amount σ (mod 1) between two subsequent crossings of this circle (we identify x2 = 0 and x2 = 1, of course).

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Dynamical Systems: Problems and Solutions by Jürgen Jost


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