By Valerian J. Derlega
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Additional resources for Cooperation and Helping Behavior. Theories and Research
Formal versus Informal COGNITIVE ORIENTATION The basic element in the schema related to this dimension has to do with whether one expects the people involved in the social situation to let their activities, forms o f relationship, demeanor, and the like be determined and regulated largely by social rules and conventions or whether one expects such people to have the freedom to make and break their own rules as suit their individual and collective inclinations. In a formal relationship, one expects that the latitude for deviation from conventional forms o f behavior is small and that when one violates the rules, others will react negatively and one wall be embarrassed ( i f the violation is unwatting).
Lewin, Κ. Field theory in social science. N e w York: H a φ e r Brothers, 1951. , 6^» Hage, J. The organization of role relationships: A systematic description. American Sociological Review, 1970, 35, 884-900. McClelland, D. C , Atkinson, J. W . , Clark, R. Α . , <&= Lowell, E. L. The achievement motive. N e w York: Appleton-Century-Crof\s, 1953. Merton, R. K. Social theory and social structure. ) Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1957. Murray, H . A . Explorations in personality: A clinical and experinwntal study of fifty men of college age.
One has an obligation to respect them and to conform to them. One's obligation is to the form o f the relationship rather than to its spirit. In contrast, in an informal relationship one is morally oriented to the spirit rather than the form o f the relationship. It is the relationship to which one is obligated rather than to the rules that are supposed to regulate it. In the preceding pages, for brevity's sake, I have discussed the psycho logical orientations characterizing each o f the four dimensions o f interper sonal relations as though the dimensions existed in isolation from one another.
Cooperation and Helping Behavior. Theories and Research by Valerian J. Derlega
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