By Manfred Schleicher, Frank Blasinger
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In addition, the effect can be changed at the controller via the time Td (derivative time), which we will get to know in this chapter. A pure D controller is not suitable for control, as it does not intervene in the process when there is a constant deviation, or when the process variable remains constant. 04 57 3 Continuous controllers T / °C 400 Setpoint w 300 200 100 t T / °C 400 Process value X 300 200 100 Dx Dt t yp /% P component 100 t -100 yD /% 100 D component t -100 Fig. 04 3 Continuous controllers Fig.
However, if we now look at an electrically heated furnace, we find that this is in fact a non-linear process. From Fig. 16 it is clear that a change in heater power from 500 to 1000W produces a larger temperature increase than a change in power from 2000 to 2500W. Unlike the behavior of an RC network, the furnace temperature does not increase to the same extent as the power supplied, as the heat losses due to radiation become more pronounced at higher temperatures. The power must therefore be increased to compensate for the energy losses.
1 Introduction After discussing processes in Chapter 2, we now turn to the second important element of the control loop, the controller. The controller has already been described as the element which makes the comparison between process variable PV and setpoint SP, and which, depending on the control deviation, produces the manipulating variable MV. The output of a continuous controller carries a continuous or analog signal, either a voltage or a current, which can take up all intermediate values between a start value and an end value.
Control engineering: A guide for beginners by Manfred Schleicher, Frank Blasinger
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