By Todd Johnson, Feng Liu, Richard S. Newfarmer, World Bank
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Extra info for Clear water, blue skies: China's environment in the new century
1996. " East-West Center Special Report 5. Hawaii. WHO (World Health Organization) and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 1992. Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World. Oxford: Blackwell. World Bank. 1992. World Development Report 1992: Development and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press. WRI (World Resources Institute). 1995. World Resources, 1994-95. New York: Oxford University Press. Page 17 Chapter Two Pollution, Health, and Productivity: Estimating Today's Costs Air and water pollution are costly.
Citizens affected by pollution damage can appeal directly to polluting factories for compensation. Failing a satisfactory resolution of the conflict, the matter is brought tot he local environmental protection bureau. Although large pollution accidents and intractable cases find their way to local or higher-level bureaus, thousands of small environmental cases are negotiated directly because it is more efficient and because of the traditional Chinese disdain for legal or administrative arbitration.
When mortality was analyzed by underlying cause, a doubling in the particulate concentration was associated with a 38 percent increase in mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an 8 percent increase in mortality from pulmonary heart disease. Data were also collected and analyzed to assess the relationship between air pollution and hospital outpatient visits and emergency room visits. Shenyang study. Air pollution and daily mortality in residential and commercial areas of Shenyang were examined in 1992.
Clear water, blue skies: China's environment in the new century by Todd Johnson, Feng Liu, Richard S. Newfarmer, World Bank