By Peter Richardson
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Additional info for Chinese Mine Labour in the Transvaal
C. K. PettyFitzmaurice, Marquis of Lansdowne, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in the Conservative and Unionist governments of Salisbury and Balfour, 1900-1905) and Chang Te-yih on 13 May 1904, was the outcome of the original Chinese demand for negotiations under the terms of Article V of the Convention ofPeking, 1860, made on 11 February 1904. 45 As such it replaced the unratified regulations of 1866 and 1868 although in some important aspects it was less beneficial to the Chinese labourers and their government than the 1866 Regulations.
Government action in this area seems, on this occasion at least, to have stemmed directly from initiatives taken by the Chinese authorities, and the Chinese minister in London, Chang Te-yih, in particular. By insisting on stringent controls to regulate the transfer of employees from one employer to another, 74 and by banning altogether the possibility of speculative importation, and confining it to bona fide employers 7 5 Chang ensured that some of the worst features which had characterised the Cuban and Peruvian coolie experiments would be eliminated.
11 There were four major conflicts which the importation ordinance was designed to defuse: that between mining capital and White labour; that between mining capital and the trading interests; that between mining capital and agricultural interests; and finally that between mining capital and Chinese labour itself. The first conflict has received most attention from historians, because of its ramifications in the later history of the socalled 'colour bar' in South Africa. 12 This is understandable, for the Chamber's Chinese labour protagonists were quick to draw public attention to this problem as early as March 1903, 13 and the schedule of 30 Chinese Mine Labour in the Transvaal barred trades in the Ordinance, which legalised a racial definition of skilled trades, was by far and away the most extensive then introduced.
Chinese Mine Labour in the Transvaal by Peter Richardson
Categories: Labor Industrial Relations