By Zdzisław E Sikorski
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Additional info for Chemical and functional properties of food components
Amphipathic molecules, compounds that contain both polar or charged groups and apolar regions, disperse in water if the attraction of the polar group for water can overcome possible hydrophobic interactions of the apolar portions of the molecules. Many biomolecules are amphipathics: proteins, phospholipids, sterols, certain vitamins, and pigments have polar and nonpolar regions. When amphipathic compounds are in contact with water, the two regions of the solute molecule experience conflicting tendencies: the polar or charged hydrophilic regions interact favorably with water and tend to dissolve, but the nonpolar hydrophobic regions tend to avoid contact with water.
Metal screens are used to remove particles larger than about 1 mm in size. Settling ponds remove smaller particles. Insoluble, suspended matter is usually removed by sand filters. Coagulating and flocculating agents act to bind smaller particles into clumps, which then settle or can be screened or filtered. Microorganisms can be inactivated by heat, chemical disinfection, UV radiation, or ultrasonic treatment. Most town water supplies are chlorinated or have ozone added for chemical disinfection.
Water flow through the protein channel is controlled by the number of protein copies in the membrane. , 1994). , 2004). 1 INTRODUCTION Water, with a density of 1000 kg ⋅ m–3, is denser than the oil components of foods; oils and fats typically have densities in the range 850 to 950 kg ⋅ m–3. Glycerols and sugar solutions are denser than water. Unlike solid phases of most other liquids, ice is less dense than liquid water, and ice has a lower thermal conductivity than water. These properties have an effect on the freezing of foods that are predominantly water based; the formation of an ice layer on the surface of the liquids and the outside of solids has the effect of slowing down the freezing rate.
Chemical and functional properties of food components by Zdzisław E Sikorski
Categories: Food Science