By Christoph Guger, Brendan Allison, Junichi Ushiba
This booklet studies at the most up-to-date learn and advancements within the box of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). It introduces ten awesome and leading edge BCI tasks, nominated as finalists for the BCI award 2012 by way of a jury of proven researchers and discusses how all of the nominated tasks displays common all over the world tendencies in BCI improvement. on the center of the ebook, 9 of those ten tasks are defined in unique person chapters. those comprise a targeted creation to every undertaking, a simple to know description of the equipment and a well timed record at the most modern advancements accomplished because the submission to the award. as a result, this booklet presents a state-of-the-art evaluation of the most recent BCI examine traits, from prime specialists, in a simple to learn structure supported by way of explanatory photographs, graphs and figures.
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Additional resources for Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary -2
In addition to satisfying the aforementioned BCI user-requirements, crucial advantages of the Ear-EEG platform are as follows : • the earpieces are personalized, comfortable to wear, discreet, and are easy to put in place by the users themselves, facilitating everyday use; • the tight fit between the earpiece and ear canal ensures that the electrodes are held firmly in place, thus overcoming some critical obstacles in scalp EEG – such as motion artifacts and experiment repeatability. The current in-ear prototype (see Figure 2) comprises several electrodes, with areas of approximately 20mm2, made of silver (Ag) epoxy glue mounted onto a plastic earpiece (see  for more details).
Selection of the letters for each set was picked randomly with the one rule that letters with dots in the same geometric structure, but a single difference in distance, would not be in the same set. Four such pairs exist, b-k, f-m, g-x, and h-u. For example, b and k are both made up of two dots in a vertical line with just a difference in spacing (Fig. 3). The letters were formed by stimulating a subset of electrodes within the selected six basis electrodes. The letters were presented in random order with 5 repeats of each letter in an 8- or 9-alternative forced-choice (AFC) paradigm.
The subjects are blinded by the degenerative retinal disease, Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), which causes the photoreceptor cells in the retina to die. Subjects are implanted with the Argus II implant, which stimulates the surviving cells in the retina. A single subject was selected for this feasibility study on the basis on three criteria: the ability to read (tactile) braille, spatial resolution high enough to isolate responses from 6 individual electrodes arranged in 3 by 2 pattern, and availability for testing.
Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary -2 by Christoph Guger, Brendan Allison, Junichi Ushiba
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