By Ann Senisi Scott, Elizabeth Fong
Physique constructions and serve as, 12E introduces you to the fundamentals required for the research of the human physique and the way it services in a transparent and concise demeanour. This publication takes you from a common advent to existence features, the terminology used to explain physique components and their destinations, to an total evaluate of human improvement and physique approaches. ailments and issues are built-in inside of each one physique process bankruptcy to hyperlink body structure with anatomy. Highlights and lines that emphasize medical purposes make studying enjoyable and interesting.
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Extra info for Body Structures and Functions
It is the main source of energy in cells. Glucose, sometimes referred to as blood sugar, is carried by the bloodstream to individual cells, and is stored in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscle cells. Glucose combines with oxygen in a chemical reaction called oxidation that produces energy. Fructose is the sweetest of the monosaccharides and is found in fruit and honey. Galactose is found in mother’s milk and nursing infants need it for development. Deoxyribose sugar is found in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (dee-ock-see-rye-boh-new-KLEE-ik) and ribose sugar is found in ribonucleic acid (RNA) (rye-boh-new-KLEE-ik).
Golgi apparatus/organelle Manufactures carbohydrates and packages secretions for discharge from the cell. Lysosomes/organelle Serve as centers for cellular digestion. Peroxisomes/organelle Enzymes oxidize cell substances. Centrosome and centrioles/organelle The centrosome contains two centrioles that are functional during animal cell division. Cytoskeleton/organelle Forms the internal framework. Cilia and flagella Hair-like protrusions that beat and vibrate. spindle fibers attach themselves to individual chromosomes to help in the equal distribution of these chromosomes to two daughter cells.
Surrounding the nucleus is a membrane called the nuclear membrane. When a cell reaches a certain size, it divides to form two new cells. The DNA and protein are arranged in a loose and diffuse state called chromatin. The chromatin condenses to form short, rodlike structures called chromosomes. Each species has a specific number of chromosomes in the nucleus. The number of chromosomes for the human being is 46. The nucleus divides first by a process called mitosis. It is only during the process of mitosis that the chromosomes can be seen.
Body Structures and Functions by Ann Senisi Scott, Elizabeth Fong