By John Peterson
Aquinas offers an in-depth research of simple philosophical innovations within the considered Aquinas. those techniques comprise: being, essence, lifestyles, shape, topic, fact, goodness, freedom and necessity, wisdom, keen and selecting, and correct motion. those principles are approached from an analytical perspective however the research isn't really enormously technical, which permits newcomers to stick with the dialogue.
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Additional resources for Aquinas: A New Introduction
Second, one might challenge final causation with the following dilemma. Either a supposed final cause pre-exists the efficient cause or not. If it does, then it already exists and hence is not something toward the realization of which the efficient cause acts. If it does not, then it can hardly direct the activity of the efficient cause as end or goal. How would Aquinas answer these two objections? REPLY TO THESE OBJECTIONS As to the first objection, Aquinas has an answer. It is that the principle must be interpreted more broadly.
For it is possible that these animals always act in the same way because they act out of natural necessity and not because they act for an end. The fifth and last argument turns on the definition of nature. Nature signifies either the matter or the form. But the form is the end of generation and the nature of an end is that other things come to be for the sake of it. Therefore, to be and to come to be for the sake of something is found in natural things. It is difficult to see how this argument escapes begging the question.
The cure, so it seems, is worse 20 Chapter One than the illness. Only if this prima facie contradiction in the idea of a final cause is resolved is the solution viable. But the question is, how is it resolved? How can final causes both condition and be conditioned by efficient causes? THE OBJECTION ANSWERED The answer to this goes back to the dual status of a final cause. Any final cause is both first and last in different respects. It is both form as plan and form as realization of a plan. As the former it is first while as the latter it is last.
Aquinas: A New Introduction by John Peterson