By Donald R. Griffin
"Animal Minds tackles a query that's either interesting and significant. the overpowering physique of proof that Donald Griffin has assembled places past average doubt the case for spotting that many non-human animals . . . are able to even more subtle considering than many scientists were ready to believe."--Peter Singer, writer of Animal Liberation.
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Extra info for Animal Minds
While seldom denying their existence dogmatically, they emphasize that it is extremely difficult, perhaps impossible, to learn anything at all about the subjective experiences of another species. But the 22 Chapter One difficulties do not justify a refusal to face up to the issue. As Savory (1959, 78) put the matter, "Of course to interpret the thoughts, or their equivalent, which determine an animal's behaviour is difficult, but this is no reason for not making the attempt to do so. " It is often claimed that human language is what makes conscious thinking possible for us, but that no other species has this capability, as argued by Adler (1967) and Davidson (1982, 1984).
They have no influence on behavior, and are thus incidental byproducts of brain function, or epiphenomena. Claim I of behaviorism has been largely abandoned, although it used to be vigorously defended by many behavioral scientists who reacted against any suggestion that behavior might be genetically influenced with much the same fervor as that currently directed against suggestions that mental experiences may occur in animals and exert some influence on their behavior. Extensive evidence shows that what animals learn is strongly constrained by species-specific capabilities; some behavior patterns are learned much more easily than others that the animal is quite capable of performing.
Individual great tits specialized in particular methods of extracting the mealwonns. Some concentrated on the hoppies, turning over the pieces of paper much as wild birds tum over leaves lying on the ground, and peering into the container. Others wallowed in the container and threw out the pieces of paper. One discovered that by pecking through the masking tape he could peer into the container and see whether a mealworm was present. Some opened the milkies by hammering through the tape, while others pulled away one edge of the tape.
Animal Minds by Donald R. Griffin